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English version of VDA dictionary

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Regular, formalised reporting across interfaces (hierarchical) of various levels is used to inform both the management and employees. Especially, the actual performance, deadlines, costs and potential or actual issues need to be reported and monitored.


Need or expectation that is stated, generally implied or obligatory.

Responsibility for product

Obligation of a manufacturer or other subject to remedy damages, both to property and others, caused by a product to people.


Activity undertaken to determine the suitability, adequacy and effectiveness of the subject in matter to achieve established objectives.


Action on a nonconforming product to make it conform to the requirements.

Rinse liquid

Analysis-relevant testing liquid used to remove and collect particles potentially caught on the tested object or equipment during extraction.


Possibility that an event will occur resulting in human or material loses or damages, or jeopardising the achievement of an objective. When considering a risk, such matters as the likelihood of the occurrence of an event resulting in damages or loses are considered, as well as timely identification and expected extent of the damages. The risks associated with software design are significant project or process risks that shall be monitored, assessed and controlled in duration of the project.

Risk estimation/management

Risks shall be forecasted and estimated (based on the likelihood of the occurrence and extent of damages, often expressed in possible costs). Technical, economical, political and social/cultural risks are assessed. It is important to try avoiding risks, minimise them or a decision needs to be made as to which risks are acceptable. Methods such as FMEA or checklists are used to do that.

Root cause (causes)

Root cause is a cause that upon repeated questioning: “Why did the nonconformity/unexpected event occur?” leads to no other lower-level structure; it is often perceived as the “root” of nonconformity (fault).


Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): Robust manufacturing process.

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