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English version of VDA dictionary

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Formal representation based on abstraction and idealisation of key structural and functional characteristics of a defined section of reality.


Degree to which a closed subsystem or software component includes interconnected logical units (software modules). Complexity of software modules interconnections needs to be clear and controllable.

Morphological boxes

Systematic method of raising ideas. A solution to a problem may be found by dividing the problem into individual aspects that can consequently be changed. Through various random combinations numerous new solutions arise so that the likelihood of achieving a potential optimum increases. On the other hand, rush solutions result in prompt identification of a problem.


The term “motivation” stands for the readiness of employees to perform. Quality awareness is reflected in the way individual employees approach quality issues in the area of interest.

MTBF – Mean Time between Failures

Mean time between two failures. In other words, the total time of operation divided by the total number of failures.

MTTR – Mean Time to Recovery

Mean time necessary to recover a machine to a specified condition.

Muda/ Mura/ Muri

Key elements of improvement (part of the Toyota Production Systems), the equivalent to English waste/unevenness/overburden.

Multipart MIME

Multipart MIME message includes more parts (Body parts) that are transmitted as data (also binary data).

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