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Extinction (at OPZ)

Variation of illumination initiated by a particle and conditioned by absorption and dispersion.

AdBlue®

AdBlue® is used to clean exhaust gases released from diesel vehicles. It is a clear, non-toxic solution of urea (AUS32). AdBlue® is kept in a separate container near the diesel tank. It does not mix with diesel.

Accreditation body

Authoritative body that performs accreditation.

Cause analysis

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): Standardised complaint process.

Customer satisfaction analysis

To analyse customer satisfaction is to assess data obtained from customer satisfaction surveys.

Archiving

Archiving is a long-term, organised, safeguarded and change protected keeping of documents and data.

Attributive check

Comparison of a test object against a model/template and determination on whether no limits are exceeded. An actual deviation of the checked characteristic from a nominal value cannot be traced.

Audit

Systematic, independent and documented process for obtaining audit evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which audit criteria are fulfilled.

Auditor

Person with demonstrated personal attributes and competence to conduct an audit.

Automotive SPICE®

Process assessment model to assess processes in compliance with ISO/IEC 15504, defined particularly for the development of ECUs in automotive industry.

Autosar

Automotive System Architecture. An initiative of the automotive industry towards standardisation of software in ECUs.

Autosar-domains

Categories to divide control units based on their intended use: chassis, powertrain, telematics, body.

Balanced Scorecard

BSC is a procedure for transforming organisation's visions and strategies into objectives and indicators. The key idea is to set interfaces between financial objectives and performance perspectives related to customers, internal processes and employees.

Uncertainty balance (for one measurement or one calibration) /5/

Table summarising estimate results, or statistical analyses of uncertainty elements which contribute to the uncertainty of measurement results.

Deadlock

Deadlock means that a programme is locked from further operation because two or more separate processes are queuing for action of another process.

Brainstorming

Brainstorming (or brainwriting) is a simple method of collecting ideas or potential solution proposals. The aim is to collect as many and unusual ideas/solutions as possible, without commentaries (e.g. through interviews or cards) so that these can later be subjected to evaluation.

CAQ System

CAQ System is an umbrella term designating information systems designed specifically to support quality management processes (Computer Aided Quality Assurance).

Certification body

(general) Body that conducts certification.

Quality objective

DIN EN ISO 9000:2005. Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 13. Condition related to specified or expected product characteristics and qualities which are to be achieved. Achievement of an objective shall be measurable.

Sensitivity of evidence

Lower limit of detectability.

CMM, Capability Maturity Model

CMM, or the capability maturity model for software, is a framework tool describing elements of an effective software development process. Furthermore, the CMM defines an evolutionary multistage process from an improvised, chaotic process to a mature, disciplined process.

CMMI, Capability Maturity Model Integrated for Systems Engineering/Software Engineering

CMMI is a developed capability maturity model based on the CMM integrated into system and software engineering. The actual level of maturity statement within a software process evaluation can proceed in two model representation lines: staged representation (determination of maturity based on fixed key processes) and continuous representation (determination of maturity of every key process). Basically, the CMMI is compatible with ISO IEC TR 15504.

Data, quality significant

Quality significant data are data (or information) originating within a quality management system or entering a quality management system.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis enables identification of faults or failures of a system and is used to analyse wrong reactions within the system in order to correct them.

Cause-and-effect diagram (Ishikawa/fishbone diagram)

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 11 .

Long-term capability

Used to assess quality capability under actual process conditions after the initiation of series production in adequate time.

Containment action

Containment actions are time-limited actions (immediate actions) taken to rectify or mitigate the effects of an identified nonconformity (defects) on production and final product, by all means. This concerns e.g. halting the machine.

Supplier

Organisation or person that provides a product.

Evidence of nonconformity

Nonconformity with tolerance is clearly demonstrated if measurement result Y (measured value y, including measurement uncertainty U) is beyond the level of tolerance. In such case, the product shall be rejected.

Evidence of conformity

If a result of measurement Y (measured value y, including measurement uncertainty U) falls within the level of tolerance, conformity with the tolerance is clearly demonstrated and the product is accepted.

Dynamic behaviour

Software ability to ensure adequate response time and process flow time under defined conditions.

Effectiveness

Extent to which planned activities are realised and planned results achieved.

Escalation, stages of escalation

Transfer of a problem that cannot be resolved on the actual organisational level to the next higher decision-making level according to specified rules.

Etalon; Measurement standard

Etalon, measurement standard: measuring instrument, measurement equipment or reference material kept for retention or reproduction the purpose of which is to represent a unit or one or more known values of a single quantity and thus allow for comparison and connection of one measuring instrument with another.

Evidence

Demonstration of the activities performed, usually for a submitted product.

Hardware

Hardware (e.g. engine mechanical part) is a “product” category.

Upper concentration limit (at OPZ)

Such concentration for which the coincidence error exceeds 5 %.

Information Technology (IT)

In German, EDV stands for electronic processing of data (Elektronische Daten- Verarbeitung), or IT (information technology in English, Informations-Technik in German).

Infrastructure

System of facilities, equipment and services needed for the operation of an organisation.

Process/Procedure instructions

Process/procedure instructions represent a specific type of task which is necessary to meet defined activities related to quality. Such instructions are implemented according to defined rules (e.g. signature).

Data integrity

Data protection from an inadmissible change or access.

Uncertainty interval

Such intervals near tolerance limits where conformity or nonconformity cannot be clearly demonstrated due to measurement uncertainty. If the measurement results Y (the measure values y, including the extended measurement uncertainty U) include a tolerance limit, conformity or nonconformity cannot be demonstrated.

Discrepancy range

Range outside tolerance extended by extended measurement uncertainty U.

Conformity interval

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 5.

Ishikawa diagram

Or a fishbone diagram or cause-and-effect diagram.

ISO/IEC IS 15504

ISO standard defining principles for determining the maturity through assessment. It contains, for example, the process assessment model. The ISO/IEC IS 15504 standard is generally referred to as “SPICE”.

Unit (entity)

Anything that can be described or considered separately.

To calibrate

Calibration: complete set of operations which estimates under specified conditions the calibration function from observations of the response variable, Y, obtained on reference states.

Kanban

A method used to reduce stock reserves in production through management reflecting on demand and based on the “pull” principle, e.g. using cards.

Liquid for further processing

Liquid other than a testing liquid necessary for extraction or analysis, e.g. a solvent used to rinse out analyser filters from e.g. remains of grease.

Cavity

Structurally determined hollow space in a product (e.g. blind space) which may, based on the position of the pocket, result in incomplete wetting of the areas under inspection.

Audit client

Organisation or person requesting an audit.

Code

In a sense, a code is a source code representing logic, data structures of software component development and documented commentaries in a programming language so that further processing is enabled using a translator (e.g. Assembler, Compiler).

TPM - Total Productive Maintenance

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): Robust manufacturing process.

Communication

Communication between business partners usually has a form of a personal interview; however, information and data exchanges via electronic media, e.g. telephone, fax, e-mail or data transmission from one CAQ system to another are increasingly frequent.

Communication system

See Routing-System.

Consignment stock

Store of products that are supplier's property until their acceptance by the customer.

Skip-lot-sampling inspection

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): Robust manufacturing process.

Measurement check (measurement)

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 5 .

Check, Inspection

Conformity evaluation by observation and judgement accompanied as appropriate by measurement, testing or gauging.

Checklist

Checklist, a standardised set of questions to verify/assess activities, processes, etc. should be compiled for key project steps. Templates and recommendations can be found in literature.

Root cause (causes)

Root cause is a cause that upon repeated questioning: “Why did the nonconformity/unexpected event occur?” leads to no other lower-level structure; it is often perceived as the “root” of nonconformity (fault).

Coaching

Couching is a process of directing individuals or groups using appropriate methods so as to unblock their perception of the system, or the role attitude and to initiate self-organisation processes. A coach himself/herself should be able on his/her own or with his/her associates to develop his/her abilities to solve problems and better manage work requirements or the application of methods. Coaching occurs in two forms:

Short-term capability

Is referred to when insufficient parts from series production are available, e.g. for machinery and production equipment acceptance.

Critical characteristics

Critical characteristics are such characteristics with individually estimated risks that: -are deemed directly threatening health and life with the risk resulting from the product, - depend on the adherence to legal requirements (e.g. emission). Critical characteristics are to some extent defined as specific characteristics in a sense of ISO/TS 16949:2009.

Piece production

Production of a single product, or according to repeated orders (i.e. workshop production).

Quality

Degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils requirements

LFT (German “Lieferant“)

German abbreviation for a supplier, see Supplier.

Configuration management

Being part of a project management, “configuration management” is applied when assembly/adjustment and acceptance to operation are done on customer's premises. The term covers all the activities to be coordinated and performed on site.

Quality management

Coordinated activities to direct and control an organisation with regard to quality.

Project management

Planning, organising, monitoring, controlling and reporting of all aspects of a project and the motivation of all those involved in it to achieve project objectives.

Project management (classic)

In its progress, a project is divided into individual stages so as to allow for timely identification of risks, and structured in larger segments so as to allow for an objective achievement to be monitored in individual milestones. The VDA volume stated below uses a prototype of the three-stage model.

Measurement

Measurement is an experimental procedure to determine particular values of physical quantities as multiples of a unit or reference values.

Customer satisfaction measurement

Customer satisfaction measurement measures the quality of performance the way the customer perceives it.

Measuring equipment

Measuring equipment, i.e. measuring instrument, software, measurement standard, reference material or auxiliary apparatus or combination thereof necessary to realize a measurement process.

Method

Procedure planned according to resources and purpose leading to technical skills in solving theoretical and practical tasks.

Delphi method

Forecasting method based on existing expert knowledge being performed through multilevel questioning, assessment and summarising. At a sensible selection of experts, it ensures qualitatively valuable results.

Card method (questioning with cards)

Collecting comments in the form of key words. The cards are then divided into groups based on affinity.

Circulating cards method

Alternative to the card method. Participants note down their idea and pass the card to their neighbour who adds his/her idea and, again, passes the card to his/her neighbour. Consequently, the cards are categorised in a way similar to that used with the card method.

Metrics

Numerical representation of a characteristic. Metrics must make possible a comparison with a reference value.

Intermediate product (semi-product)

Result of work which is further processed in an established process.

Microcontroller

Electronic computer, processor, memory and input/output switching circuits associated with a single silicon chip.

Microprocessor

Chip that represents a central memory in systems equipped with microcomputers. Microprocessor controls data processing in a system, inputs and outputs and peripheral and memory devices.

Milestone

Time decision point during a project.

MIME

Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions

Multipart MIME

Multipart MIME message includes more parts (Body parts) that are transmitted as data (also binary data).

Urea

An organic compound represented with chemical formula (NH2)2CO

Model

Formal representation based on abstraction and idealisation of key structural and functional characteristics of a defined section of reality.

Process Assessment Model

Extension of so-called Process Reference Model, the extension being related to the process dimension and adding aspects of experience/practice, specific notes and semi-finished products, and adding generic practices and resource to the capability dimension.

Modularity

Degree to which a closed subsystem or software component includes interconnected logical units (software modules). Complexity of software modules interconnections needs to be clear and controllable.

Morphological boxes

Systematic method of raising ideas. A solution to a problem may be found by dividing the problem into individual aspects that can consequently be changed. Through various random combinations numerous new solutions arise so that the likelihood of achieving a potential optimum increases. On the other hand, rush solutions result in prompt identification of a problem.

Motivation

The term “motivation” stands for the readiness of employees to perform. Quality awareness is reflected in the way individual employees approach quality issues in the area of interest.

Muda/ Mura/ Muri

Key elements of improvement (part of the Toyota Production Systems), the equivalent to English waste/unevenness/overburden.

Correction

Action to eliminate a detected nonconformity.

Testing tools

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 13 .

Defect

Non-fulfillment of a requirement related to an intended or specified use.

0-km failure

These are failures that occur with the OEM upon delivery, installation or final check.

Validation

Confirmation, through the provision of objective evidence, that the requirements for a specific intended use or application have been fulfilled.

Awareness (in the context of the publication)

Knowledge and experience of an organisation regarding products and processes, such as product qualities and functions, production design/development process, methods and standards.

Lead assessor

Leader of an assessment team that is responsible for a proper and standard-compliant assessment and accuracy of results. A minimum qualification is defined (“Competent Assessor”).

Version

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 13.

Measurement process capability

Capability of a measurement process for presumed task within a control process with specific consideration given to accuracy (extended measurement uncertainty). As regards variable tests (measurements), the capability is demonstrated if the gPP indicator, extended measurement uncertainty against tolerances (gPP = 2.U/T) does not exceed the pre-defined limits.

Statement, brief

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): Standardised complaint process.

Performance

Level of capability to deliver a specified or expected performance.

Rinse liquid

Analysis-relevant testing liquid used to remove and collect particles potentially caught on the tested object or equipment during extraction.

Production

Manufacturing of products in production and/or assembly stages.

Means of production

The term stands for all the equipment and its components used for production, adjustment, testing, transportation and storage of customer's products (e.g. machinery, equipment, tools, agents, gauges).

Development environment

Set of tools that support development processes (key processes). Among other things, it covers planning tools, design tools, simulators and generators, and configuration tools.

Product creation

Process incorporating all the activities from an initial design to production.

Sample

Tangible unit subject to quality check for specific reasons, or crucial to quality checks.

WSDL (Webservice Description Language) Webservice Description Language

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA-requirements for the transmission of messages in QDX.

XML

XML stands for the eXtensible Markup Language and is used to represent hierarchical data structures in the form of text outputs. The XML is primarily used to exchange data between two computer systems, especially via the Internet.

XSD

XML Scheme Definition

Preventing nonconformity

Nonconformity prevention covers all actions taken to prevent (repeated) occurrence of the same nonconformity. A preventive action is a synonymous term. It is part of production process optimisation or major construction changes.

Kick Off

Assessment process step during which the assessor and assessed organisation jointly discuss the assessment process.

Kick-off meeting

Working meeting of entire project team at the beginning of a project. The aim is to jointly understand project objectives, client's expectations, processes and methods applied and responsibilities of individual team members. It also covers a project plan discussions and provision of relevant information (e.g. other related projects with points of contact, partial projects). Participation of representatives from individual attending departments.

Customer

Organisation or person that receives a product.

HIS Process Scope

The scope defines the minimum of processes in automotive industry (AUTOMOTIVE SPICE®) to be assessed by HIS members, if applicable. (ENG.2 - ENG.10, SUP.1, SUP.8- SUP.10, MAN.3, ACQ.4).

Record

Document stating results achieved or providing evidence of activities performed.

Assessment log

Formal document used by an assessor to complete assessment. The assessor uses an assessment log to demonstrate his/her activities to the certification body.

Goods

As regards tangible products, the term goods stands for parts, components, supply volume, supply, etc.

Audit findings

Results of the evaluation of the collected audit evidence against audit criteria.

Test

Test (general) is a technical operation that consists of the determination of one or more product, process or service characteristics according to a specified procedure. (ISO/IEC Guide 2, 13.1)

Prototype tests

Prototype tests cover dimensional, material, functional and other tests carried out on prototypes considering all the specifications approved between the supplier and the customer. For certain characteristics, a statistic assessment should be assumed and agreed upon, e.g. evidence of capability of machinery and processes.

Regulatory (feedback) circuit

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): Robust manufacturing process.

Prototype test report

The supplier’s competent authority uses the prototype test report to demonstrate results of initial sampling to the customer. The report describes products and materials manufactured entirely with the use of series production equipment, under series production conditions.

Series production verification report

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 7 (CD ROM) .

Failure mode

Within supplier's description of nonconformity, a failure mode is a description of events leading to the occurrence of nonconformity: e.g. “at temperatures below 10 °C, the feeding mechanism is overloaded due to a more difficult operation of the CD drive”. This is part of supplier's description of the nonconformity.

Process capability

Value of a statistic estimation of a final process output, the state of statistical control of which has been demonstrated.

Machine capability

Machine capability is determined by comparing the tolerance and variation in production with a single production setting. Mathematical and statistical methods are usually used for assessment and verification considering both short-term variations following a major process-influencing failures and factors independent from the machine itself.

Loses

“Internal loses” are loses resulting from insufficient quality before dispatch. They are caused by reduced labour efficiency due to additional work, incorrect ergonomics, etc. The term also covers costs related to nonconformities resulting from failure to meet product quality requirements before dispatch (e.g. repeated service provision, repeated production, rework, repeated tests, rejects, etc.). “External loses” are both tangible and intangible loses after dispatch caused by insufficient quality.

Special sample

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 7 (CD ROM).

Product lifecycle

Phase of origin and use of a product until its final decommissioning.

Traceability

ISO 10012:2003. Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 6.4 .

DFMA – Design for Manufacture and Assembly

Method aimed at optimising a structural disposition and production costs, decreasing the number of parts, shortening the development time, reducing the assembly costs and increasing quality.

Measurement uncertainty

Parameter associated with the results of a measurement which characterises the dispersion of the values that could reasonably be attributed to the measurand.

Nonconformity

Non-fulfillment of a requirement.

Discrepancy

Lower limit regarding detectability.

Continual improvement

DIN EN ISO 9000:2005. Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 6.2, VDA volume 6.4.

Zero Frequency (at OPZ)

In a mode in which displayed particles are counted within a certain timeframe, zero frequency is a situation when a sensor is filled with clear, still liquid.

OBD

On Board Diagnostic System

Business partner

A business partner is the customer, or supplier, depending on the perspective.

Business plan

Business plan consists of one or more documents stating company-specific strategic projects and objectives to be completed in a defined period of time (e.g. short-term, medium-term, long-term).

Object

Concrete characteristic of an element at a random level of hierarchy (product, system, subsystem, software module, document, etc.) and also a structural part.

Objective evidence

Data supporting the existence or verity of something.

Maturity level estimate

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): Automotive SPICE .

Risk estimation/management

Risks shall be forecasted and estimated (based on the likelihood of the occurrence and extent of damages, often expressed in possible costs). Technical, economical, political and social/cultural risks are assessed. It is important to try avoiding risks, minimise them or a decision needs to be made as to which risks are acceptable. Methods such as FMEA or checklists are used to do that.

Deviation

Difference between the value of a characteristic (feature) and a value assigned to a characteristic and a reference value. For quality characteristics (features): the value of a characteristic (feature) or value assigned to a characteristic minus the reference value.

Responsibility for product

Obligation of a manufacturer or other subject to remedy damages, both to property and others, caused by a product to people.

Nonconformity elimination

Nonconformity elimination, fault correction process and fault elimination are synonyms. The above mentioned represents an umbrella term to designate all actions aimed at ensuring that only faultless pieces are cleared for production. The term also covers a root cause analysis.

OFTP

ODETTE File Transfer Protocol

Immediate actions

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): Standardised complaint process.

Repeated defect (0 km)

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): Standardised complaint process.

Repeated defect (site/operation)

1. A complaint has already been filed for the same part (base: customer's part number). 2. The complaint has been filed with the same supplier (base: contractual relations between a customer and a supplier). 3. Both complaints demonstrate the same symptoms (base: customer's description of a defect). 4. The first complaint regarding presented combinations has already been closed. 5. The date of part production (not vehicle approval date) where the defect has been identified is later than an implementation date of an action in stage D6-action.

Repeated use

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 13.

Action

An action is a targeted activity aimed at changing an existing yet undesirable situation in a required and approved way in due time.

Corrective action

Action to eliminate the cause of a detected nonconformity or other undesirable situation.

Remedy action

See Corrective action.

Repair

DIN EN ISO 9000:2005. Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 6.2 .

Organisation

Group of people and facilities with an arrangement of responsibilities, authorities and relationships.

Organisational structure

Arrangement of responsibilities, authorities and relationships between people.

Verification

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 6.1, VDA volume 6.2, VDA volume 6.4, VDA volume 13.

Machine capability test

Machine capability test is a qualification test of machinery used for production of individual products.

Payload

The term “Payload” represents user data exchanged during communication between two business partners.

Audit plan

Description of the activities and arrangements for an audit.

Quality plan

Document specifying which procedures and associated resources shall be applied by whom and when to a specific project, product, process or contract.

Project plan

Project plan includes a costs, schedules with milestones and labour assignment plans. Project plan is a living document reflecting both the actual state of a project and the state the achievement of which is required. Such plan would usually contain requirements for process and product planning and design.

PLANETS

Plant Location Analysis NETwork System

DoE - Design of Experiments

This method aims at optimising processes and systems as efficiently as possible. Indicators influencing a process or a system are consciously changed as part of more planned experiments so that an optimum is identified for one or more of the defined values (e.g. optimal combination of injectors, mixture, etc. to achieve combustion as effective as possible). This method is based on statistic procedures to maximise the use of information from experiments aimed at structured planning of the sequence of experiments and their assessment.

Platform

Technical representation of an element at a random level of hierarchy (e.g. system, subsystem, hardware/software component) where a possibility exists to simply gain a similar solution through changes, parameterisation or derivation while retaining the significant characteristics.

Reporting

Regular, formalised reporting across interfaces (hierarchical) of various levels is used to inform both the management and employees. Especially, the actual performance, deadlines, costs and potential or actual issues need to be reported and monitored.

Poka-Yoke

System (method) used to prevent an occurrence of unintentional failures, or their timely detection.

Quality policy

DIN EN ISO 9000:2005. Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 6.1, VDA volume 6.2 .

Description of a defect from supplier's perspective

Analytical qualified description, failure appearance, and mode of failure. The supplier describes the product defect, e.g. “a cogwheel of the CD ejecting mechanism is broken”.

Description of a defect from customer's perspective

Symptomatic deviation description. Typically, the customer describes obvious symptoms of a defect, e.g. “CD cannot be ejected”.

Procedure

DIN EN ISO 9000:2005. Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 6.1, VDA volume 6.2 .

Assessed organisational unit (German abb. ZO)

Assessed organisational unit. As regards development division, one or more units within an organisation are assessed.

Assessment

Formalised and standardised assessment of organisational unit's processes against a process reference model. Depending on the particular situation, assessor's experience influences the assessment.

Assessor

Person's role in an assessment. In an assessment, the assessor interviews and assesses answers.

Requirement

Need or expectation that is stated, generally implied or obligatory.

Work instructions

Detailed descriptions of how to perform and record tasks.

Work products

A work product is anything created by an employee within the scope of his/her work.

Practices

Applied working procedures.

Prevention

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 6.3.

Preventive action

DIN EN ISO 9000:2005. Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 6.2.

Feedback presentation

Step at the end of an assessment whereat the team of assessors provides timely feedback on the assessment results. It usually covers important strong points and ideas for improvement, or presents current maturity profile.

Process

Set of interrelated or interacting activities which transform inputs into outputs.

Integration process

The term integration process covers a process beyond systems communication of which is based on XML messages.

Continual Improvement Process (CIP)

Synonymous term to continual improvement: recurring activities to increase the ability to fulfil requirements.

Build process

Creation of software components (versions) based on a source code (Quellcodes) in an applicable form available for distribution (e.g. on data storage media or microcontroller software memory).

Product

Result of a process.

Maturity level profile

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): Automotive SPICE .

Programme

Executable part of software.

Audit programme

Set of one or more audits planned for a specific time frame and directed towards a specific purpose.

Project

Unique process, consisting of a set of coordinated and controlled activities with start and finish dates, undertaken to achieve an objective conforming to specific requirements, including the constraints of time, cost and resources.

Software project

For software, the CMM defines a project as an “action requiring concentrated costs and relating to an analysis, specification, design, development, testing and/or maintenance of software components and their accompanying documentation as part of a system. A software project can be a part of a major project combining both hardware and software.

Demonstration

Activity used to demonstrate by means of documents that an attained performance (of a product or service) meets specified requirements. Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 1.

Prototype

Sample manufactured exclusively with the equipment intended for series production and/or manufactured partially within the series production limits.

Acceptance

Acceptance is a written confirmation of product acceptance (in legal terms) by a customer. The acceptance consists of a number of tests to convince the customer that the product is in compliance with specified requirements.

Rework

Action on a nonconforming product to make it conform to the requirements.

Review

Activity undertaken to determine the suitability, adequacy and effectiveness of the subject in matter to achieve established objectives.

Cause of nonconformity

Cause of nonconformity is the cause (partially) responsible for the occurrence of nonconformity.

Quality manual

Document specifying the quality management system of an organisation.

QDX

Abbreviation of “Quality Data eXchange”. It is a standardised description of interface in the XML format which can be used to arrange a direct exchange of quality-relevant data between CAQ systems of business partners. The QDX was developed and defined in between 2002 and 2004 following an order by working group 7 of the VDA-QMC. It has been improved since then.

QM – methodology guideline

The QM – methodology guideline is a specific form of a task which is necessary to complete defined quality-related activities. The guideline is implemented according to defined principles (e.g. signature).

R-parts

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): Robust manufacturing process.

Process reference model

The process reference model defines obligatory requirements for the process. In the process dimension, the model includes process ID (e.g. MAN 3), process classification, purpose and outcomes. In the capability dimension, the model incorporates maturity levels and process attributes.

Complaint process

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA-requirements for the transmission of messages in QDX.

Process requalification

see Requalification (defined in the standard)

Risk

Possibility that an event will occur resulting in human or material loses or damages, or jeopardising the achievement of an objective. When considering a risk, such matters as the likelihood of the occurrence of an event resulting in damages or loses are considered, as well as timely identification and expected extent of the damages. The risks associated with software design are significant project or process risks that shall be monitored, assessed and controlled in duration of the project.

Interface

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): Standardised complaint process.

Range of performance levels

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 13 .

Quality Function Deployment (QFD)

QFD (Quality Function Deployment) is a method (QM tool) developed in the 70's in Japan. It is used to identify customer requirements and their direct transformation into required technical specifications. The methodology is based on separating customer requirements (WHAT?) from technical product characteristics and functions (HOW?).

Extensibility

The ease with which a component/module can be altered or extended to, e.g. increase the memory capacity or functionality (cf. ISO 9126 “Software Quality Characteristics”).

Run@rate

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): Robust manufacturing process.

Tier 1, ..., n

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): Automotive SPICE.

Management

Consistently closed regulation cycle consisting of definition of objectives, measurement of objective completion and relevant corrective and improvement actions (e.g. PDCA).

Nonconformity control

Procedures defined to identify, assess, correct and document nonconformity in order to eliminate them permanently.

MBO - Management by Objectives

Management by objectives so that managers have fewer things to worry about and initiative is promoted as well as staff motivation. This requires establishment of procedures for setting, monitoring and achieving objectives.

SCR

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): Minimum requirements for the management system in AdBlue® production and distribution chain.

Series production

Repeated production of a product of the same type and make.

Series tests

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 7 (CD ROM) .

ship-to-line

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): Robust manufacturing process.

Conformity

Fulfillment of a requirement.

Conformity of Production

Conformity of production with legal requirements.

Testability

Degree at which a software component or module enables and facilitates testing criteria to be determined and appropriate tests taken.

Six Sigma

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 13 .

Service

One of four superior product categories.

Guideline

Guideline represents an obligatory framework for the conduct of an entire organisation, e.g. settling travel expenses.

SOAP

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA-requirements for the transmission of messages in QDX .

Software

DIN EN ISO 9000:2005 . Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 13. Programmes, procedures, rules and/or data and any accompanying documentation related to an operation of a computer system. This publication uses the term software components.

List of requirements

Set of requirements defined by the customer for the supplier and his/her performance in the scope of the job.

Specification

DIN EN ISO 9000:2005. Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 6.2.

SPICE (Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination)

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): Automotive SPICE .

Customer satisfaction

Customer's perception of the degree to which the customer’s requirements have been fulfilled.

Dependability

Collective term used to describe the availability performance and its influencing factors: reliability performance, maintainability performance, and maintenance support performance.

Sponsor

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): Automotive SPICE.

Standard (measurement) uncertainty u(x) /1/"

Uncertainty expressed as a standard deviation of measurement result.

Standard product

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 6.4.

Statistical methods

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 6.4 .

Complaint

Expression of dissatisfaction made to an organisation, related to its products, or the complaint-handling process itself, where a response or resolution is explicitly or implicitly expected.

MTBF – Mean Time between Failures

Mean time between two failures. In other words, the total time of operation divided by the total number of failures.

MTTR – Mean Time to Recovery

Mean time necessary to recover a machine to a specified condition.

Maturity level

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): Robust manufacturing process.

Product Maturity Level

Level to what extent a product during design/development complies with the required status in a defined time.

Substrate disc (Wafer)

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 18.4.

Subsystem

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 13.

System

DIN EN ISO 9000:2005. Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 6.2, VDA volume 6.4.

Management system

System to establish policy and objectives and to achieve those objectives.

Quality management system (QMS)

Management system to direct and control an organisation with regard to quality.

Planning techniques

Among other things, planning activities incorporate an analysis and optimisation of requirements, planning of procedures and deadlines. For this purpose, a number of techniques are available, e.g. actions plan (deadlines), bar charts (e.g. Gant diagram), net plan, and project structure plan and others.

Testing

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 13 .

Tolerance

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): Standardised complaint process. Tolerance = the difference between the upper and lower values, or the difference between the upper limit value and lower limit value. The tolerance of a characteristic in question is defined as a difference between two defined values and thus predefined values of quantitative characteristics.

Air cleanliness class

Particle content in ambient air not exceeding specified maximum amount of particles of defined size, measured on operation's stand-by.

Turbulent flow

Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): VDA volume 19.

Audit team

One or more auditors conducting an audit.

Assessment team

Team of all assessors of an organisation participating in the assessment. An assessment team should consist of at least two people one of which is so called lead assessor (responsible assessor). Decisions are made in agreement of all team members. Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): Automotive SPICE .

Efficiency

Relationship between the result achieved and the resources used.

FPY Indicator (First Pass Yield)

Percentage of results already achieved in the process correctly without additional work.

Contamination level

Range of number of particles designated with an appropriate code number, e.g. code number 5 represents a number of particles from 16 to 32.

Level of practice

Reference level of the Automotive SPICE® model used to define a process according to the level of practice and generic experience. At this level, strong points and improvement potential refer to general expectations realised on a basis of experience. Although meeting the expectations is not obligatory, it is considered a good process realisation practice.

Release

Permission to proceed to the next stage of a process.

Acknowledgement, business

Acknowledgement, business, is an acknowledgement of customer's financial claims regarding a complaint. In this context, a business acknowledgement is a preliminary acknowledgement of proposed values. The actual business process is realised outside the scope of this process. Reference to a VDA publication (if the definition is specific to a particular publication, different from it, or complementary to an applicable standard): Standardised complaint process.

Acknowledgment, technical

Acknowledgement, technical, occurs when the supplier (or customer) arrives at a conclusion upon a relevant test that the part subject to the complaint is faulty, or fails to meet approved requirements and he (supplier) bears responsibility (originates) for the fault. No financial claims made by the customer are acknowledged through technical acknowledgement (see business acknowledgement).

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